Carl E. Rice WW2 Memoirs: Directory of Links to Entries

Carl E. Rice World War 2 Memoirs Directory

  1. December 1st, 1941
  2. December 8th and 9th, 1941
  3. December 10th to 24th, 1941
  4. December 25th to 31st, 1941
  5. January 1st, 2nd, & 3rd, 1942
  6. January 4th to 17th, 1942
  7. January 16th to May 15th, 1942
  8. May 15th to September 1st, 1942
  9. September 1st, 1942 thru May 17th, 1943
  10. May 17th to October 30th, 1943, Part 1
  11. May 17th to October 30th, 1943, Part 2
  12. October 14th to December 30th, 1943
  13. November 1st to December 31st, 1943
  14. January 1st, 1944 to April 30th, 1944
  15. May 1st to August 1st, 1944
  16. August 1st to September 21st, 1944
  17. September 21st to November 25th, 1944
  18. November 1st to November 25th, 1944
  19. November 25th to December 15th, 1944
  20. December 15th to December 23rd, 1944
  21. December 24th and Christmas 1944
  22. December 26th, 1944 to January 11th, 1945
  23. January 11th to January 29th, 1945
  24. January 30th to February 2nd, 1945
  25. Newspaper Clippings Attached to Page 24 of Memoirs
  26. February 3rd, 1945
  27. February 3rd, 1945, continued…
  28. February 4th, 1945
  29. February 4th, continued, to February 6th, 1945
  30. February 6th, continued, to February 8th, 1945
  31. February 8th and February 9th, 1945
  32. February 10th and February 11th, 1945
  33. The Battle of Manila, February 1945, Background
  34. Lost World: The Rice Family in the Philippines Before World War 2
  35. February 12th to February 19th, 1945
  36. February 19th, 1945, continued…
  37. February 20th to March 1st, 1945
  38. March 2nd to March 9th, 1945
  39. March 10th and March 29th, 1945
  40. March 13th to June 22nd, 1945
  41. June 22nd to August 23rd, 1945
  42. Epilogue, Part 1
  43. And Last…Looking Back
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The Battle of Manila, February 1945, Background (Carl E. Rice WW2 Memoirs addendum)

I’m going to take a break from transcribing directly from my grandfather’s memoirs to give a bit more context and background to the wider military developments which, at the moment we left off, were even then engulfing the city of Manila, its inhabitants, and of course my family.

Below are some maps to help the reader better visualize the location of the Philippines:

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Global map of the Philippines (in green).

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Modern map of Manila, darkened to highlight Santo Tomas, where my grandfather was interned,  and the Malate District, where my family lived.

When the U.S. Army began the campaign to oust the Japanese from Luzon (they had already invaded the islands to the south), they actually managed to embark  from the north, via the Lingayen Gulf along the northwestern coast of Luzon, due north and west of Manila, on January 9th, 1945.

You would expect that the U.S. Army would prefer to deliberately proceed southward to evict the Japanese. However, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur had received intelligence that the American and other Allied prisoners held in places like Manila and at other locations were to be slaughtered if the American army got too close. MacArthur was desperate to rescue as many American lives as he could and sent an advance force south to Manila with all haste to secure Santo Tomas among other known prison camps.

As you saw previously in my grandfather’s memoirs, this was accomplished by February 5th, 1945. Though the Japanese guards were allowed to leave, other Japanese units continued to bombard Santo Tomas for roughly a full week afterward, taking many American soldiers lives as well as, in a sad irony, many newly-freed American internees (again, as has been seen previously in the memoirs).

Perhaps somewhat naively and definitely optimistically, MacArthur declared that Manila had “fallen” on February 4th. He and his staff were said to even be planning a victory parade. Indeed, the general in charge of the Japanese Army, Tomoyuki Yamashita, did not believe he could defend Manila and had ordered his troops to abandon the city and fall back to the foothills to the north.

Had this policy been carried out by the entire Japanese military apparatus in the Philippines, all would have been well as far as Manila was concerned; countless lives would have been spared and the city, known as the Pearl of the Orient for its beauty that combined Spanish, American and native architectural styles from its varied multicultural heritage,  would have been preserved.

Unfortunately, the Japanese Navy, commanded by Rear Admiral Iwabuchi Sanji, was committed to defending Manila at all costs, and in defiance of his colleague Yamashita, was determined to inflict the maximum possible damage on the advancing American forces, and more horrifically, on the defenseless Filipino civilian population, including such atrocities as rape, mutilation, bayoneting, and ultimately slaughter. In the end, it is estimated that 100,000 Filipinos were killed during the month long Battle of Manila (some estimates are as high as 500,000), and not all by Japanese soldiers, but also due to friendly fire from the advancing Americans who were unable to always differentiate the civilians.

By the end of the battle on March 3rd, 1945, the Pearl of the Orient was reduced to a pile of rubble and laid waste in one of the most vicious urban battles of World War 2.

It is against this backdrop that we return to my grandfather’s memoirs…

Carl E. Rice WW2 Memoirs: February 6th (cont.) to February 8th, 1945

Feb 6, 1945 Cont.—Heavy fighting continues, Jap demolition time bombs continue to explode, about 15 sq miles of the city north of the river now burned; three of our armies said to have advanced close to Manila; the First Cavalry troops who rescued us were only about 700 strong.

We are to be moved tomorrow to the GYM to make room for Hospital; Red Cross says to leave everything behind as they will give us new clothes and beds; but we know the Red Cross and will hold on to our old stuff till we see their new supplies (never did get them).

Feb 7—Shelling of Camp continues; Gen MacArthur visited Camp; at 2PM I was in Main Building to send radio, and hurried away from the crowd at the front door as we were to load our things on a truck to the Gym; just got away in time as a shell hit just over the door and killed several people and wounded many; When I finally got things loaded shells were coming our way, one hit in front of main building, killing a soldier on plaza; several just missed our roof and hit the wall behind garden, one killed some Japs hiding in a house behind camp; Nelson said, let’s get out of here, so I went down behind the building, and stayed there while shelling was heavy.

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U.S. General Douglas MacArthur (bottom center, in the hat cap) visits Santo Tomas on February 6th, 1945.

Feb 7 cont.—I did not go to the Gym with some who left our room; as they were fixing their bunks in the Gym several shells hit it and killed “Java” and fatally wounded Tom Henderson, and severely wounded several others and most of the folks ran over behind the Seminary; I finally made a run for the Main Building and lined up inside for chow, about 5:00PM; as we waited in the chow line, shells hit the rooms at south corner and killed and wounded many people, mostly women, some of the girls who dip out food for us were killed, Rev. Foley and Phil Carmen also killed.

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Living quarters at Santo Tomas; perhaps this is the gymnasium?

The dead and wounded were carried past me into room 13, for emergency Hospital; they were very badly mangled by shrapnel; after supper we stayed on the sidewalks north east side, it was raining slightly, many of us had diarrhea from eating too much, fighting was heavy, machine guns were firing tracer bullets at our guns, several soldiers were killed; an officer came by and gave me two cigars, said with compliments of General MacArthur; shells hit room above us and showered fragments; had no blankets and all in all it was a night to remember.

About 4:00AM Crumrine and I got into the back door of the Main Building, it was crowded, and as the emergency hospital was full and some wounded and died, there was much weeping and distress among the women and children; until daylight it was not a nice situation to be in.

Several soldiers were killed and wounded in the night fighting.

Feb 8—Daylight brought some lull and good breakfast; I at last got my longed for bread and butter; went to Gym and found my clothes but no cot so I used Graham’s as he is in Hospital, this is a fairly quiet day and got a little sleep. Battle still raging in Manila but only few shells near hear. Thousands of Japs are in Walled City and Ermita and Malate and our troops are attacking.